Calibration and Validation
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Global Validation Sites

The sites in the table below include permanent sites as well as some transitional sites.

Validation Site

Latitude, Longitude

Locality

Elevation (m)

Surface type

Point of Contact

Temperature-based validation sites

Lake Tahoe

39.12488 N, 120.03927 W 

Lake Tahoe CA, USA

1900

Water
Four NASA buoys TB1, TB2, TB3, TB4
Instrument & measurement
- Interval: 1 min

Dr. Simon Hook

Salton Sea

33.2253 N, 115.82425 W 

Riverside and Imperial CA Counties, USA

-70

Water
Instrument & measurement Platform
- Interval: 1 min

Dr. Simon Hook

UC Davis', Russell Ranch

38.55789 N, 120.03927 W 

Davis CA, USA

28

Agricultural field

Instrument & measurement:
- Interval: 2 min

Dr. Simon Hook

Gobabeb; GBB Wind

23.55 S, 15.05 E 

Namibia

450

Gravel plains
Instrument & measurement details:
- Height (m): 25
- Diameter of FOV (m): 4
- Emissivity: 0.940
- Interval: 1 min

Lake Constance

47.61 N, 09.44 E

Lake Constance centered on ferry’s route

Obersee, Switzerland

395

Water
Instrument & measurement details:
- Height (m): 8
- Diameter of FOV (m): 1.3
- Emissivity: 0.973
- Interval: 15 sec

Emissivity and Radiance-based LST validation sites in North America and Namibia

Algodones Dunes

32.95 N, 115.07 W

Southeast CA, Eastern margin of the Salton Trough

94

Quartz sand

Great Sands

37.77 N,

105.54 W

San Luis Valley, CO, adjacent to  Sangre de Cristo, NE of Alamosa

2,560

Quartz, potassium feldspar sand

Kelso Dunes

34.91 N, 115.73 W

Mojave Desert, CA, southeast of Baker

800

Quartz, potassium feldspar, magnetite sand

Killpecker

41.98 N, 109.10 W

Southwest WY, from Eden across Rock Springs into Red Desert

2,000

Quartz, plagioclase feldspar, epidote, magnetite sand

Little Sahara

39.7 N

112.39 W

West-central UT, Sevier River drainage basin, west of Lynndyl

1,560

Quartz, plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, carbonate, magnetite sand

White Sands

32.89 N, 106.33 W

South-central NM, Tularosa Valley

1,216

Gypsum sand

Gran Desierto

32.00 N, 114.45 W

Sonoran desert, Northwest Mexico

150

Quartz, feldspar sand

Namib Desert

15.24 S, 24.47 E

Western coast of Namibia, Africa

0-500

Quartz, feldspar, magnetite sand

Texas Grassland

36.30 N, 102.57 W

Dallam County, Texas

1,200

Grassland

Redwood Forest

41.39 N, 123.67 W

Northern California/Southern Oregon

1,026

Conifer, Redwood trees